P2’s gold-copper Gabbs Project is situated within the northwestern end of the Fairplay Mining District in Nevada, approximately 145 miles by paved road from Reno. P2 has recently completed an updated preliminary economic assessment (the “Updated PEA”) of Gabbs, which has an Indicated Mineral Resource of 1.058 million ounces of gold equivalent or 0.676 million ounces of gold, 1.964 million ounces of silver and 261.3 million pounds of copper (42.3 million tonnes grading 0.50 g/t gold, 2.8 g/t silver and 0.28% copper) and an Inferred Mineral Resource of 1.358 million ounces of gold equivalent or 0.895 million ounces of gold, 1.885 million ounces of silver and 304.0 million pounds of copper (55.2 million tonnes grading 0.50 g/t gold, 2.1 g/t silver and 0.25% copper).
Location and access to infrastructure
The Gabbs Project is comprised of 543 unpatented lode mining claims and one patented lode mining claim covering four known zones of mineralization and comprising approximately 4,500 hectares. Access is good, with Nevada Highway 361 and Gabbs Pole Line Road crossing the property. A powerline also crosses the property, and a major transmission line is located within 30 kilometers. Access to water by permit is available.
The gold-copper mineralization at three of the known zones, Sullivan, Lucky Strike and Gold Ledge, is hosted within what are interpreted to be sills associated with an alkaline gold/copper porphyry. The gold mineralization at the fourth zone, Car Body, is interpreted to be low-sulphidation epithermal mineralization.
In late 2021 and early 2022, the Company completed a 48.3-line kilometer Natural Source Magneto Telluric (“NSMT”) survey at Gabbs covering all four known zones of mineralization and the prospective locations of a potential gold-copper porphyry source at depth.
The initial interpretation by the Company of the three-dimensional NSMT inversion model has identified a high priority area in the center of the property that hosts a gold-copper porphyry exploration target. This area is below the Gold Ledge Zone and confirms the two-dimensional interpretation of the NSMT inversion model. The Company requires an additional permit in order to drill the exploration target.
Gabbs Project 2023 PEA
In September 2023, the Updated PEA for the Gabbs Project was prepared by Kappes, Cassiday & Associates (“KCA”) of Reno, Nevada with Mineral Resource and mining contributions from P&E Mining Consultants Inc. of Brampton, Ontario in accordance with National Instrument 43-101, Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (“NI 43-101”). (See news release dated September 11, 2023.)
After-tax net present value (5% discount rate) of US$292.2 million and internal rate of return of 17.0% at US$1,918/oz of gold, US$23.01/oz of silver and $3.73/lb of copper (“Spot Metal Prices”).
Total projected life-of-mine (“LOM”) revenue of US$3.43 billion at Spot Metal Prices over 13.4-year mine life
LOM gold equivalent production of 1.86 million ounces (79.1 million tonnes @ 0.54 g/t gold, 1.28 g/t silver and 0.27% copper) at Spot Metal Prices, with LOM production of 1.206 million ounces of gold, 1.742 million ounces of silver and 327 million pounds of copper
Average annual gold equivalent production of 139,000 ounces at Spot Metal Prices
Estimated pre-production capital cost, including contingencies, of US$277.7 million with payback of 3.0 years at Spot Metal Prices
The PEA is preliminary in nature, includes Inferred Mineral Resources that are considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as Mineral Reserves, and there is no certainty that the PEA will be realized. Mineral Resources that are not Mineral Reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. The Company has not defined any Mineral Reserves on the Gabbs Project.
Gabbs Project 2023 PEA - Economic Sensitivities
Base Case metals prices were established by the Company reflecting the Company’s expectations for market conditions at the time of construction financing for the Gabbs Project and to allow for a direct comparison with the Gabbs June 2023 Preliminary Economic Assessment (see news release dated June 29, 2023).
Table 1: Gabbs Project September 2023 PEA Economics
Gold Price (US$/oz)
Silver Price (US$/oz)
Copper Price (US$/lb)
Net Revenue (US$)
After tax NCF(2) (US$)
After tax NPV(2) 5% (US$)
After tax IRR(2) (%)
Payback(3)/Mine Life (years)
As of September 7, 2023
NCF means net cash flow; NPV means net present value; IRR means internal rate of return.
Capital and Operating Costs
Table 2: Gabbs Project September 2023 Updated PEA Capital Costs
(US$ in millions)
Mining (including contingency of 10%)
Process, Heap Leach (including contingency of 25% on direct costs)
Other (including contingencies)
Total Pre-Production Capital(1)
Working capital and initial fills (heap leach)
Sustaining Capital (mill capital and contingencies)
Sustaining Capital (mining, other and contingencies)
Reclamation and Closure
Sum differs due to rounding
Table 3: Gabbs Project September 2023 Updated PEA Operating Costs and AISC
Mining ($/tonne mined)
Heap Leach Processing ($/tonne)
Mill Processing ($/tonne)
AISC (by-product), LOM @ Spot Metal Prices ($/ounce of gold)
Projected Mining and Production
Table 4: Gabbs Project September 2023 Updated PEA Projected Mining and Production Summary
Ox/S means oxide mineralization/sulphide mineralization
At Spot Metal Prices.
Sums may differ due to rounding
Table 5: Gabbs Project September 2023 Updated PEA Other Mine Production Parameters
Total waste tonnes mined
Total processed tonnes mined
Total low-grade stockpile mined
Total tonnes mined
Heap - Gold Recovery, Oxide
Heap - Silver Recovery, Oxide
Heap - Copper Recovery, Oxide
Mill - Gold Recovery, Oxide
Mill - Silver Recovery, Oxide
Mill - Copper Recovery, Oxide
Mill - Gold Recovery, Sulphide
Mill - Silver Recovery, Sulphide
Mill - Copper Recovery, Sulphide
Mining and Processing
The mineralized material will be mined by standard open-pit mining methods using an owner mining fleet of 136-tonne haul trucks and 15.3 m3 hydraulic shovels, fine crushed using a system incorporating a jaw crusher, cone crushers and high-pressure grinding rollers (HPGR).
The Gabbs mineralized material is estimated to contain an average of 0.27% copper based on the mine plan used for this Updated PEA. A portion of this copper is cyanide soluble and is expected to be extracted in the heap leach circuit. The cyanide soluble copper has an effect on the cyanide consumption. A SART (sulfidization, acidification, recycling and thickening) plant that releases cyanide associated with the copper cyanide complex, allowing it to be recycled back to the leach process as free cyanide is included. The resulting copper precipitate will be sold, bringing additional revenue to the project.
After the crushing circuit, the mineralized material will be agglomerated with cement and conveyor stacked on the heap leach pad in 8-meter lifts then single-stage leached with a dilute cyanide solution. The gold and copper bearing solution will be collected in the pregnant solution pond and pumped to the SART plant. Pregnant solution will be acidified with sulfuric acid, then copper will be precipitated as sulfides by the addition of sodium hydrosulfide. The precipitate will be thickened and filtered to produce a copper filter cake for shipment to a smelter. The barren solution from the SART plant will be processed in a carbon adsorption-desorption-recovery (ADR) plant to recover gold. The gold will be periodically stripped from the carbon using a desorption process. The gold will be plated on stainless steel cathodes, removed by washing, filtered, dried and then smelted to produce a doré bar.
The ROM feed material to the mill will use the same crushing circuit as the heap leach facilities. The mill feed will be crushed to P80 6.3 mm, (1/4”) in a three-stage crushing circuit, with the third-stage an HPGR. The ore will be conveyed to a single-stage ball mill circuit. Sulfide and oxide mineralized material will be campaigned through the mill as the oxide material will not be treated in the flotation circuit. The milled sulphide product will be treated in a flotation plant to produce a copper concentrate suitable for sale. The flotation tailings and ground oxide material will be thickened, then direct cyanide leached to dissolve gold, silver and copper. The leached solids will be washed in a CCD circuit to remove the dissolved metals and cyanide. The dissolved copper and silver will be recovered from the CCD overflow solution in a SART plant as a copper/silver sulphide precipitate. Regenerated sodium cyanide from the SART plant will be recycled to the leach circuit. Gold in the SART plant barren solution will be recovered in an ADR plant and refined to produce doré bars. The CCD tails are treated in a cyanide destruction circuit, filtered, and conveyed to a “dry stack” storage facility.
Low-Grade Stockpile – evaluate alternatives for processing low-grade stockpile
Leased Mining Fleet– evaluate leasing versus purchasing the mining fleet
Contract Mining - evaluate contract mining versus owner fleet
Mine Plan – optimize mine sequencing to increase return on capital and carryout geotechnical drilling to optimize pit slope angles
Stripping - evaluate extent of alluvium in waste to reduce stripping cost
Mineral Resource – expand oxide and sulphide gold and gold and copper mineralization (zones remain open)
Metallurgy – complete additional test work to increase recoveries for oxide and sulphide mineralization and evaluate the use of HPGR for potential heap leaching of sulphide mineralization to increase recovery of free gold
Capex – evaluate equipment alternatives to reduce capital costs
Additional metallurgical test work will be undertaken next to refine metallurgical recoveries for both the oxide and sulphide mineralization along with an evaluation of the depth of the alluvium and geotechnical drilling. Thereafter, Feasibility level studies will commence and will include an evaluation of contract mining versus an owner fleet (leased or owned), mine plan optimization and equipment alternatives. Timing of the metallurgical test work, drilling and Feasibility level studies will be dependent on the availability of funds.
Gabbs Project 2023 Mineral Resource Estimate
The June 2023 Updated Mineral Resource Estimate (“2023 MRE”) was prepared by P&E based on four diamond drill holes and 27 reverse circulation drill holes completed by the Company in 2021 and 2022 and 494 drill holes completed by prior Gabbs Project operators between 1970 and 2011. The 2023 MRE is restated in this news release to include silver.
The main difference between the 2023 MRE and the February 2022 Mineral Resource Estimate (see news release dated February 10, 2022)is the decrease in the oxide cutoff grade to 0.28 g/t gold equivalent from 0.35 g/t gold equivalent and an increase in the sulphide cutoff grade to 0.44 g/t gold equivalent from 0.36 g/t gold equivalent. As a result, oxide Mineral Resources have increased and sulphide Mineral Resources have decreased.
Table 6: June 2023 Gabbs Project Pit Constrained Mineral Resource Estimate(1)(2)(3)(4)
Gold Eq. Grade
Mineral Resources which are not Mineral Reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. The estimate of Mineral Resources may be materially affected by environmental, permitting, legal, title, taxation, sociopolitical, marketing, or other relevant issues.
The Inferred Mineral Resource in this estimate has a lower level of confidence than that applied to an Indicated Mineral Resource and must not be converted to a Mineral Reserve. It is reasonably expected that the majority of the Inferred Mineral Resource could be upgraded to an Indicated Mineral Resource with continued exploration.
The Mineral Resources in this press release were estimated using the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), Standards on Mineral Resources and Reserves, Definitions (2014) and Best Practices (2019) prepared by the CIM Standing Committee on Reserve Definitions and adopted by CIM Council.
The Mineral Resource Estimate was prepared for a potential open pit scenario using a constraining pit shell (with 50 degree slopes) at respective 0.28 g/t and 0.44 g/t oxide and sulphide gold equivalent cut-off grades. The gold equivalent cut-off grades were derived from US$1,838/oz gold, US$3.96/lb copper, US$2.15/tonne mining cost, and US$11.76 and $23.66/tonne respective oxide and sulphide processing costs; US$1.25/tonne G&A cost, 78.3% and 95.2% respective Au oxide and sulphide process recoveries; and 48% and 78% respective Cu oxide and sulphide process recoveries.
Silver not included in gold equivalent calculation.
Oxide Mineral Resources at Gabbs consist of Indicated Mineral Resources of 724,400 ounces of gold equivalent (30.6 million tonnes grading 0.49 g/t gold, 1.49 g/t silver and 0.27% copper) and Inferred Mineral Resources of 779,000 ounces of gold equivalent (33.0 million tonnes grading 0.53 g/t gold, 1.03 g/t silver and 0.23% copper). See Table 7 below for a breakdown of the oxide and sulphide Mineral Resources.
Table 7: June 2023 Gabbs Project Pit Constrained Mineral Resource Estimate by Rock Group(1)(2)
Gold Eq. Grade
See Notes 1 to 4 to Table 1 above.
Tables may differ and not sum due to rounding.
Table 8: June 2023 Gabbs Project Pit Constrained Mineral Resource Estimate by Zone(1)(2)
Gold Eq. Grade
Lucky Strike Inferred
See Notes 1 to 4 to Table 1 above.
Tables may differ and not sum due to rounding.
Gold Ledge Inferred Mineral Resource rounded to zero**.
The Technical Report in respect of the Updated PEA and Mineral Resource Estimate of the Gabbs Gold-Copper Property has been filed on www.sedar.com.
The Updated PEA was prepared by Carl E. Defilippi, RM SME of KCA and Eugene Puritch, P.Eng., FEC, CET, and Andrew Bradfield, P.Eng. of P&E Mining Consultants Inc. (“P&E”) of Brampton, Ontario, each of whom is a “Qualified Person” as defined by NI 43-101 and independent of the Company and has reviewed and approved of this technical content relating to the Updated PEA.
The 2023 MRE was prepared under the supervision of Eugene Puritch, P.Eng., FEC, CET of P&E Mining Consultants Inc., who is an Independent Qualified Person, as defined by National Instrument 43-101. Mr. Puritch has reviewed and approved this technical content relating to the 2023 MRE.
Ken McNaughton, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., Chief Exploration Officer, P2 Gold, is the Qualified Person, as defined by National Instrument 43-101, responsible for the Gabbs Project. Mr. McNaughton has reviewed, verified, and approved the scientific and technical information relating to the Updated PEA.
The Gabbs property is situated within the northwestern end of the Fairplay Mining District and has been intermittently explored by various operators from the 1970’s until 2011. Over half of the drilling during this period concentrated on the Sullivan porphyry gold-copper deposit. The mineralized zones at Gabbs had not been tested along strike or at depth, and of the 494 holes drilled at Gabbs between 1970 and 2011, 180 holes (36%) ended in mineralization. Also, a significant number of holes drilled prior to 2004 were, depending on the focus of the operator, assayed only for gold or only for copper, not both metals. Two pre-feasibility level studies were completed for Sullivan, in 1990 (by Gwalia Gold Mining) and 1995 (by Arimetco). Both studies were completed prior to the development of the sulphidization-acidification-recycling-thickening process (SART) for the recovery of oxide gold with copper. The most recent substantive exploration work on the property was completed by Newcrest from 2002 to 2008, which included geochemical and geophysical surveying and drilling. Newcrest decided in 2009 to divest its US properties and Gabbs was acquired by St. Vincent Minerals Inc. in 2010. Prior to P2’s 2021 exploration program, no exploration work had been undertaken at Gabbs since St. Vincent’s work in 2011.
On May 14, 2021, the Company acquired all the assets that comprise the Gabbs Project located on the Walker-Lane Trend in the Fairplay Mining District of Nye County, Nevada pursuant to an asset purchase agreement dated February 22, 2021, as amended by subsequent amendments dated May 4, 2021 and April 28, 2022 among the Company, P2 Gabbs Inc. (a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company) and Borealis Mining Company, LLC (“Borealis”), an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of Waterton Precious Metals Fund II Cayman, LP (“Waterton”). To acquire the Gabbs Project, at closing the Company paid US$1million to Borealis, and issued 15 million shares in its capital to Waterton and agreed to pay an additional US$9 million to an affiliate of Borealis, Waterton Nevada Splitter, LLC (“Splitter”), over the following two years. (See the Company’s news releases dated February 23, 2021, announcing the acquisition of the Gabbs Project, and May 5, 2021 and April 28, 2022.), announcing amendments to the terms of the acquisition of the Gabbs Project).
Under an amending agreement dated March 6, 2023, the Company restructured the outstanding payment terms. P2 issued to Splitter 3,320,534 shares in the capital of the Company and agreed to the following payment terms: (a) US$150,000 on or before December 31, 2023, (b) US$250,000 on or before December 31, 2024, (c) US$2 million on or before December 31, 2025 and (d) US$2.4 million on or before December 31, 2026. The Amending Agreement also contemplates, (x) if P2 raises, through the issuance of debt or equity, in excess of C$7.5 million (excluding flow-through funds), 10% of the funds raised will be paid to Splitter against the longest dated milestone payment and (y) on the sale of an interest in, or of, Gabbs, the proceeds will be paid to Splitter up to the amount outstanding at the time.
In addition, P2 issued to Splitter a US$4,000,000, zero coupon convertible note (the “Note”) with a four-year term (expiring March 5, 2027) convertible at a price of C$0.30 per share provided that the Note cannot be converted if all payments due under the Amending Agreement have been made at the time the Note is called (other than if a change of control is to occur prior to repayment of the Note). The Note can be called at any time on payment of 115% in the first year, 130% in the second year and 150% thereafter and is due on maturity, an event of default or a change of control. Also, under the Note, approval by the shareholders of the Company is required if conversion of the Note would make Splitter a Control Person (as defined in the Exchange’s Corporate Finance Manual). (See the Company’s news releases dated March 6, 2023, March 21, 2023 and March 29, 2023.) announcing the terms of the re-structuring of the terms of the Gabbs Project.)
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